History of an evolution: land transport

Simple but revolutionary. The oldest archives date in about 5,500 years ago the invention of the wheel, although there is no exact agreement on the moment of its birth. Regardless of this fact, its appearance made it one of the fundamental inventions for Humanity. The need to load objects and distribute them between different territories is at the origin of land transport but also of maritime transport and air transport. Currently, fair services and stand transportation at fairs are two concrete examples of the continuing need for this benefit.

In itself, the history of land transport can be understood as the reflection of social evolution. At its dawn, the needs of moving objects and goods from one point to another were aided by the use of animals as a driving force. The dogs at first and larger animals over time became essential elements in land transport. Drawn by horses, cars and errands led to the exchange of all types of raw materials and manufactured products thanks to the establishment of trade routes.

Research and inventive activity subsequently led to the emergence of more modern transport methods: the bicycle gave way to the motorcycle and this, in turn, to the car. In the latter case, the discovery, in 1882, of oil was key. And it is with the First World War that transportation needs are fueled, giving rise to the birth of buses and the great engine industry that exists today. Rail, urban transport, subway or high-speed train are currently social facilities without which no territory could guarantee the supply of food and all kinds of goods and services. Its evolution is part, in itself, of the history of Humanity itself.

Security in the transport of goods, both in maritime transport and in land transport is a priority. In the case of international freight transport, it is also necessary to make sure that the insurance coverage is complete and that it includes assumptions that may be different from country to country (for example, that the entire truck is covered and not just the container, etc.)

The types of existing policies are:

– For trips: they are the policies that cover a certain route (including those made in airplanes and wagons). The duration of the insurance ends when the merchandise arrives at its destination. Goods addressed to a single customer delivered on a single trip are covered, including possible stopovers, transfers, necessary storage on the road and transportation stoppages.

– Open insurance policies: they cover certain goods or merchandise that are directed to a single client, but that are delivered in more than one trip. The entire route of the various necessary trips from the point of departure upon arrival is covered. Also included are the stops, transfers, storage in itinere and the stoppages of the means of transport.

– Floating: these are the policies that cover the transport of different goods or merchandise that are addressed to several clients and that make various trips using a certain time in them. The routes of all the trips necessary for these deliveries are included with the inclusion of the stops and transfers, storage in itinere and stoppages of the means of transport. It is a type of policy that needs certain specifications in the contract.

– Insurance policy “pass”: are the policies that cover a certain capital in a series of variable trips during the insured period. He is usually hired by transport companies to cover their mandatory responsibilities that mark international law.
In short, there are policies for each transport situation.

History of air transport

The history of air transport until reaching the current international freight transport system began in 1782, when brothers Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier invented the first hot air balloon.

The first plane in the world was the work of other brothers, the Wright, already in the twentieth century. For a couple of decades, the increasingly perfect balloons and zeppelins competed on equal terms with the planes. The accident of the Hindenburg in 1937 marked the decline of this means of transport, when in full rearmament of the European powers, prior to World War II, the aircraft improved their autonomy, their operability and their carrying capacity.

After World War II, there were already jet-fired planes capable of acquiring a speed of more than 500 kilometers per hour. In between, small milestones had been achieved in the evolution of air transport: in 1916 a commercial plane traveled more than 2,000 kilometers above the Andes mountain range in South America. Three years later, a plane managed to travel the distance between London and Paris, and in that same year 1919 the first transcontinental flight was achieved, between Canada and Ireland.

International freight transport today
In the 21st century, all countries in the world have airports and are connected by routes of all kinds of distance and cost. Passengers, with the tourism boom, use the plane in their holiday periods to enjoy days off in other countries and merchandise travels further and further by air.
 While the ship is suitable for the transport of cheap and heavy goods, the aircraft has become the preferred means of transport for sending high-cost or urgently received products.

Types of transport for each merchandise: maritime, air and land transport

Kinds of transport

In a global economy, freight transport becomes a first order necessity. Now, not all means of transport have the same utility, depending on the merchandise. For this reason, three different forms of transport coexist.

Sea transport

Maritime transport is, today, the most used option in international merchandise trade. In fact, freight traffic by sea has grown by 6.7% in the first half of 2017. The decisive thrust of trade in the Pacific Ocean has a decisive influence.

In order to transport by sea, dry, non-perishable goods that do not involve urgent consumption are usually moved. It is the cheapest way, by far.

Ground transportation

Ground transportation is the most followed alternative for short distances in developed countries. The existence of an extensive road network allows door-to-door collection and delivery, in the case of road transport. There is also the freight traffic by rail, cheaper.

In any case, land transport allows you to send any merchandise for the balance between price and conservation, including perishable food. It is not the cheapest way, but it is acceptable for moderate quantities.

Air Transport

Air transport has grown as a result of the globalization of economic flows and the emergence of certain economies of scale.

It is a good alternative, although expensive, for the delivery of urgent courier, luxury items or medical and pharmaceutical products.

The transport is adapting to the new times and, therefore, there is a means available for each type of product.

Maritime transport

Maritime transport: types of ships depending on the type of cargo

The maritime freight transport consists of an activity through which people or merchandise are transported aboard a vessel by sea. With the rise of aviation, the transport of people by sea has been relegated to small crossings or large cruises. At present, ships are mainly destined for the international transport of goods.

Depending on their capacity and cargo size, they can be classified into bulk carriers, container ships, tanks, refrigerators, rolling cargo, coastal, ferries, cruises and barges.

Bulk vessels are the most appropriate for transporting solid loads such as grains or minerals. Its design favors loading and unloading with cranes. In its cover the surfaces in rectangular form destined for this purpose are clearly distinguished.

Container ships, as their name indicates, are intended for the transport of goods in containers. The majority of the international transport of dry cargo is carried out in this type of vessel.

Tankers or tankers are designed to house crude oil, liquids, chemicals and liquefied gases.

Food and perishable goods are transported on refrigerated vessels.

Those with rolling cargo have ramps and platforms capable of fixing and immobilizing all types of vehicles.

Cabotage ships, also called coastal vessels, are designed to navigate in shallow waters. They can skirt the coast without running aground.

The “ferries” or ferries are intended for the transport of passengers in small crossings and coastal cities. Cruises, however, are dedicated to leisure tourist trips.

Finally, the barges are small and transit rivers and waters with shallow depth.

As can be seen, not all ships are the same or appropriate for all types of merchandise. Thus, maritime transport is embellished with the wide variety of models and designs of its vessels.